Kwon Hak-ju is a Korean firefighter. In 1993, he was appointed as a firefighter in Gangwon-do and worked at the Gangneung Fire Station, Gangwon Fire Service Academy, PyeongChang Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games as a medical manager, and Gangwon Fire Headquarters. He is a first-class emergency medical technician and is chairman of the book club ‘ONI’.
Lee Seung-hoon (1984 ~) is a Korean firefighter. He graduated from Gangneung High School, majored in firefighting at Kangwon National University and served as the 18th mandatory firefighter at the Gangneung Fire Station. In 2009, he passed the candidate exam for Fire Lieutenant and was appointed after finishing the 16th Fire Cadet training on March 3, 2011 to the local fire department in Gangwon-do. He worked at the Hongcheon Fire Station, the Donghae Fire Department, and the Gangwon Fire Department.
Lee Heung-kyo is a Korean firefighter. As a candidate for the 7th fire officer, he was appointed as a local firefighting defense on February 10, 1993. He has served as the head of the Donghae Fire Department, the Head of the Gangwon-do Fire Department, the Head of the Disaster and Emergency Affairs Agency, the Head of the National Emergency Management Fire Policy Division and the Administrative Support Team, and the Director of the Fire Department of Gangwon-do.
이흥교는 대한민국의 소방공무원이다. 제7기 소방간부후보생으로 1993년 2월 10일 강원도 지방소방위로 임관하였다. 그는 동해소방서장, 강원도소방학교장, 소방방재청 재난상황실장, 국민안전처 소방정책과 행정지원팀장, 강원도 소방본부장등을 역임하였다.
Forest Fire Prevention and Suppression Support Measures in 2020
❖ Support for forest fire prevention and suppression in accordance with the 2020 Road Fire Prevention Plan
Promote measures to minimize the loss of valuable lives and property
Forest Fire Outbreak Status and Weather Forecast
Forest Fire Outbreaks in the Past 10 Years
Increasing the number and area of wildfires caused by global warming and climate change
* (2010 ~ 2014) 238 cases, 250ha → (2015 ~ 1919) 444 cases, 5,159ha
❍ Operate forest fire precautionary periods during spring and autumn with a lot of wildfires and special countermeasures against forest fires at major times
The prevalence of forest fires is spring and autumn, and the main cause of fires
❍ On average, 68 cases occurred in the last 10 years, 540 ha of forest damage
-45 cases (66%) occurred in spring (February to May) and area accounted for 503 ha (55%)
* The highest number of monthly occurrences is April 14 (20%) and the maximum damage is 298 ha (55%) in April.
-6 cases (10%) occurred in November and December and 20ha (2%) area
* The number of occurrences in November and December was 3 cases (5%) respectively, and the maximum damage was 10ha (2%) in December.
-The causes are mostly misfires by residents (47%, 32 cases) and incineration wildfires (21%, 14 cases).
* Actualized by residents: (last 10 years) 47% ⇒ (’16 years) 35% ⇒ (’17) 55% ⇒ (’18 years) 47% ⇒ (’19 years) 31%
❍ Wildfires occur throughout the year due to high temperatures throughout the year, low precipitation and increased days of drying
* Forest fires outside the forest fire monitoring period (cases): (10-year average) 23⇒ (’17 years) 26⇒ (’18 years) 20⇒ (’19 years) 29
Forest Fire Prevention Policy
Increased risk of large payments on the East Coast due to climate change and increased forest resources
❍ The average temperature in spring will be similar to or higher than the average year (11.4`12.0 ℃), but the climate change will be large, and precipitation is likely to be similar to the average year (209.1 ~ 260.4mm), but in March ~ April, the risk of wildfire remains.
❍ In the last 10 years, the majority of large forest fires (100 cases) over 100 ha have
* Number of large forest fires over 100ha: (East Coast) 7 cases, 87% / (Engseo) 1 case, 23%)
※ Reinforcement of readiness is needed in the areas where the dry and strong wind special warnings are issued on the east coast
Power facilities and DMZ wildfires are emerging as new causes of wildfires
❍ The number of wildfires caused by electric power facilities is small (3 in 10 years), but can be expanded to large wildfires.
* ‘The cause of large forest fires in Goseong and Sokcho on April 4, 19
❍ Repeated wildfires at military ranges and large-scale DMZ wildfires have emerged as issues.
* Military Range Wildfires: Focus on Spring with a High Risk of Wildfires
Need to strengthen fundamental safety measures by major causes of forest fires
❍ Forest fires are expected to increase due to hiking populations, mushroom and herbalist harvesters, and incineration of garbage.
* Strong crackdown on unauthorized entry, forest fire, etc.
❍ Incineration wildfires are on the rise again, and there are risks in rural conditions that are inferior to collection and disposal.
* Number of incineration wildfires (weighted): (last 10 years) 21% → (’17) 7% → (’18) 17% → (’19) 18%
❍ High potential for forest fires due to fires in buildings caused by the increase of pension complexes around Guisan Village and forests
❍ As forests become dense, fuels such as trees and forests grow continuously
Prevention of forest fires and promotion activities at major times
Full inspection and fire suppression drill
▫ New Year’s Day Full Moon (2. 7. ～ 2. 8.) * New Year’s Day Full Moon (2. 8.)
▫ Arbor Day, Cheongmyeong, Korean Food (4. 5.∼ 4. 5) * Cheongmyeong (4. 4.), Korean Food, Arbor Day (4. 5.)
▫e 21st Congressional Election (4.15.)
▫ Buddha’s Birthday (4. 29. ~ 4. 30.) * Buddha’s Birthday (4. 30.)
▫ Chuseok (9. 30. ~ 10. 4.) * Chuseok (10. 1.)
❍ Time: (Spring) February-April, (Autumn) October-November
❍ Target: Cultural assets, traditional temples, important facilities, etc.
※ Protection Structure Division -1771 (20. 1. 20.): Promotion of the “2020 Fire Fighting Training Promotion Plan”
❍ Operation method: Joint execution of firefighting, cultural property, forest, local government
-Provide safety training to prevent fires, including forest fires
-Special safety checks and joint fire drills for cultural property
* Strengthening initial response capability centered on self-defense fire brigade and securing dispatch route
-Cooperation to eliminate forest fire factors such as transmission towers and military ranges
* Send notice of forest fire prevention to Korea Electric Power Corporation
-Continue on-site training and maintain manual
Special safety check
Self-Defense Fire Drills
Cultural Fire Fighting Training
Settlement of pre-reporting of rice paddy field and support for removal of flammable substances
❍ Crack down on actions that could be mistaken for fire by unauthorized burning
* Province Fire Safety Management Ordinance (penalty below 200,000 won) / Promotion of joint promotion with the city and county
❍ Fire truck support on request of the city government for the removal of forest and paddy fields
* Support for fire trucks and deployment of forest fire surveillance personnel at the time of joint incineration
Incineration of Agricultural Waste in Village Units
Forest Fire Evolution Support
Forest Ground Incineration Crackdown
Firefighting helicopter forest fire prevention publicity activities (flight training hours, etc.)
❍ Promote broadcasts to prevent forest fires (mountain safety accidents) using firefighting helicopters
-Target areas: forest fire vulnerable areas frequented by national parks and hikers
-Method: Operate according to local conditions such as holidays and forest fire hazard alerts.
※ Firefighting headquarters helicopter (2 units) PR area: Hoengseong ⤍ Yeongseo, Yangyang ⤍ East coast
Promote forest fire prevention activities for major vulnerable periods
❍ Publicity broadcasting of forest fire (mountain safety accident) prevention by vehicle
-Target areas: forest fire vulnerable areas frequented by national parks and hikers
-Method: Operate according to government office conditions such as holidays and forest fire hazard alerts.
❍ Forest fire border (atmosphere) service, patrol, and evacuation and relief activities for vulnerable periods
-Target area: Eupyeong-myeon firefighting teams of Eup and Myeon and medical fire brigade around the local university (2 ~ 3 people per day)
-Method: flexible operation of the fire chief’s judgment, such as the announcement of holidays and forest fire hazard alarms
❍ Campaigning for forest fires (prevention of mountain safety accidents)
-Target area: Entrance to major hiking trails by fire department (promote banner use, etc.)
-Method: Joint operation of medical fire brigade, National Park Service, and city
Operation of Forest Fire Extinguisher
❍ Supporting early firefighting activities and forest fire suppression (support for other authorities)
※ 18 cities and counties 1,510 (1,380 in 138 units of the main school / 130 in 29 districts)
❍ Rehabilitation of forest fire extinguishers for each fire department and safety training including forest fire suppression tips
Induce firefighting and firefighting of volunteer firefighters
❍ Assisting medical firefighters who complete professional training on fire suppression and serve the community to be selected as forest fire monitors and firefighting personnel.
Prepare for fires and prepare for response
Operation of emergency management support system against large forest fires
❍ Prepare for advance response by reinforcing firefighting headquarters situation management personnel
-Time: When the 1st stage of response to fire department is issued
-Persons: 1 lawyer
-Contents: Support for situation management and preparation of road control team
❍ Enhance work, including major fire breakdown periods
◦ Weekends: Reinforcement of work at the alert stage of the Forest Service
※ Four stages of forest fire alarm (Article 23 of the Enforcement Decree of the Forest Protection Act): Attention → Attention → Boundary → Serious
◦ Cheongmyeong, Korean Food (4.4. ~ 4.5.), Buddha’s Birthday (4.30.), Etc.
-(Firefighting headquarters) Reinforce emergency personnel such as Jeongwoldae Full Moon, Arbor Day, Cheongmyeong, and Korean Food * Assistance in case of special boundary working period (2 people waiting a day) -(Fire Department) Flexible operation depending on the level of crisis alert and the time of vulnerability 말 Weekend: Wait for mandatory personnel to dispatch `` Border '' 보 Daeboreum, Arbor Day, Cheongmyeong, Korean Food, Buddha's Day, etc. ※ The fire chief's chief is flexible in consideration of local conditions and weather conditions. 재정 Reorganize all emergency staff networks and establish an immediate response system. ❍ Fire emergency response team for fire in case of large forest fire ※ Notice of Amendment to the Fire Protection and Rescue Division -10569 ('18 .5.4) ' 원칙 Priority response of the highest level
Intensive management of forest fire-prone areas
❍ Maintenance of facilities such as private houses in wildfire-vulnerable areas such as national parks (management card)
※ Utilize maps of portals and store them in situation rooms and command vehicles
(Location, number of households, driveway, nearby fire water, representative emergency contact network, etc.)
❍ Take countermeasures against areas where fire trucks are difficult to access, including cultural assets and traditional temples
-Secure self-extinguishing water (more than 20 minutes), install a fire extinguisher, outdoor fire hydrant, waterproof gun, etc.
-Elimination of weeds in contiguous forests, creating a buffer zone to prevent forest fires
-Firefighting training for organizing and operating self-contained firefighting teams and improving initial response capacity.
Creation of forest junction buffer zone
Self-Defense Force fire drill
Rapid and accurate situation management (reporting and propagation) system establishment
❍ Providing information on the utilization of forest fire site video monitoring system and deploying suppression operations
-2018. 4. Approval of Use Rights: Spring (2.1 ~ 5.15.), Autumn (11.1. ~ 12.15.)
-Provide system utilization and commander information during the comprehensive situation room
❍ Actively use the forest fire situation control system to share disaster information (forecast situation, etc.)
❍ Share forest helicopter (forest service) aerial evolution video
* Signed business agreement for joint response to forest fires (March 28, 2017)
⤷ Gangwon-do, Firefighting Headquarters, Eastern and Northern Forest Service
❍ Accurately grasp the situation when receiving a forest fire report, prompt dissemination of related agencies, and request for helicopter
※ Record the situation work log such as early fire spread situation, dispatch of firefighting team (helicopter), arrival time on site, establishment of integrated firefighting field command center (time and place, operation personnel, dispatch of fire liaison officer)
❍ Renewal and supplementation of support agreement (emergency contact network) between related organizations of forest fire mobilization resources
Thorough inspection and maintenance of forest fire suppression equipment and fire water facilities
❍ Thoroughly train and manage forest fire extinguishing equipment such as forest fire hose reel
-Thorough inspection and maintenance of fire trucks and fire suppression equipment (100% operation)
-Continuous operation training for forest fire suppression equipment such as power fire pump
❍ Checking freshwater management status to secure fire water for each fire department
❍ Check the management status of the water intake during the dry season or the freezing season of the weak fire zone
Forest fire extinguishing equipment inspection and maintenance
Forest fire extinguishing equipment operation training
Fire helicopter intake check
Forest Fire Elementary Suppression and Air Conditioning System
Field Commander Prompts quick situation determination and early input of appropriate extinguishing resources
❍ Top priority for prompt initial response and protection of private houses and cultural assets in case of wildfire
※ In case of damages to private houses, the on-site commander puts the highest priority on evacuation of all firefighting powers, including forest firefighting teams (including medical firefighters), and evacuation of private houses.
❍ Initiating the superior firefighting force in response to requests for simultaneous dispatch of local firefighting teams
❍ The field commander requested rapid forest (lease) helicopters and firefighting assistance to the 119 Situation Room at the early stages of forest fires (supporting wide-range helicopters, including 6 available leased helicopters in the province).
* Priority call for helicopters regardless of size when wildfires and weather alerts are issued
Private and cultural property protection
Volunteer Fire Fighting Evolution
Aerial Evolution of Forest Helicopters
Reestablishing the on-site command system for effective forest fire extinguishing
❍ In principle, the site command center should be united as a forest fire site integration command center (city, county, forestry office), and separate emergency rescue control groups for urban and large forest fires.
❍ Firefighting performs the duties and roles of the Emergency Rescue Control Group in the field of fires and disasters.
* With the revision of the Framework Act on Disaster and Safety Management (’14 .12.30), the head of the Integrated Support Division (the head of the municipal and military departments) cooperated with the head of the emergency rescue control team (fire chief) on matters related to emergency rescue.
Clarify mission and role of fire helicopter and establish support system
❍ The firefighting helicopter pays attention to safety accidents with other agency helicopters, and puts priority on the protection of facilities such as private houses.
* Focusing on public evolution for forest protection when there is no concern about damage to facilities such as private houses
❍ Establishing regional dispatch and sharing of situation and propagation system and securing wired / wireless communication network according to forest terrain and accessibility among firefighting aviation
* National Disaster Shared Frequency (Note. 122.0MHz, Reserved. 127.8MHz)
❍ The 119 General Situation Room requested immediate dispatch of forest helicopters at any stage of the fire.
* Unification of the window to the 119 General Situation Room at the fire station
Secure and use forest fire extinguishing equipment
❍ Establish a local support system for forest fire extinguishing equipment (e.g., light pumps, etc.) when mobilizing civilian resources such as medical fire brigades for remaining fire extinguishing (cooperative with local governments for each fire department)
❍ Wear personal safety equipment and check the crew safety of field commanders for effective and safe extinguishing activities in vast forest areas.
Proactive Response System for Simultaneous Bundles and Night Fires
❍ Establishment of simultaneous fire suppression system
-Maintaining a smooth communication system between the local government (the Forest Service) and the fire department’s field command headquarters (distributing liaison officers when installing the fire field integrated command center)
-Evolutionary manpower and firefighting helicopters in accordance with forest fire extinguishing priority
❍ Establishment of night fire preparedness and thorough safety management
-Focusing on preventing combustion expansion, such as preliminary watering of expected private houses, evacuation of life expectancy, and construction of defense ships rather than direct firefighting.
-In case of forest fire extinguishing at night, check on site situation and check fire safety
East Coast Large Forest Fire Prevention Measures
Joint Response to the East Coast Fire Prevention Center
❍ Instrument: 1 center 2 rooms (Situation Response Room, Integrated Support Room)
❍ Manpower: 23 people (Fig. 10, City 6, Forest Service 6, Meteorological Agency 1)
※ Dangerous periods such as special measures for large forest fires (Dispatch): Ministry of National Defense 1, National Police Agency 1, National Park 1
Head of Integrated Command Division (Governor of Gangwon-do)
Counselor: Green Coat
- Articles 37 and 38 of the Forest Protection Act
Donghae Coastal Fire Prevention Center (23 persons)
Director (one person)
(Seobangjeong / Gangwon-do)
East Sea Special Disaster
Correspondence group (35)
Director (1 person)
(Seobangjeong / Gangwon-do)
Deputy Director (1 person)
(13 people / 3 shifts)
Integrated Support Office
(8 people / day)
Correspondence group (35)
Gangwon-do 2, 6 County
Fire room 3, Forest Service 2
Gangwon-do 3, Korea Forest Service 3
Fire room 1, Meteorological Agency 1
※ Dangerous periods such as special measures for large forest fires (Dispatch): Ministry of National Defense 1, National Police Agency 1, National Park 1 ❍ Open 24 hours -3 shifts in 24 hours (firefighting, city, military, etc.), prompt situation determination and first responders -Integrated management of forest fire response using relevant information among related agencies (Forest Authority, Provincial, City, County, Firefighting, etc.) ❍ Integration of forest fire extinguishing resources on the east coast -Integrated management and operation of six city and county firefighting resources (helicopters, equipment, manpower, etc.) on the east coast -Request for priority flight orders for wildfire-fired helicopters deployed in the center jurisdiction; ❍ Human Resources
❍ Status of helicopter use
Gangneung Airlines Office
Extra Large 1 (8,000ℓ), Large 3 (3,000ℓ), Medium 1 (800ℓ)
Goseong, Sokcho, Yangyang
Gangneung, East Sea, Samcheok
Surveillance and Evolution Personnel
Prevention and extinguishing equipment
Eastern District Office
Samcheok Management Office
Gangneung Airlines Office
Active Firefighting Efforts for Pan-East Special Disaster Response Team
❍ Operated two forest fire specialist cars (’19 .7.8.)
❍ In case of wildfires in Yeongdong area, on-site dispatch, focusing on initial fire extinguishing under the direction of the director of the East Coast Fire Prevention Center
Strategic movement of evolutionary resources in the East Coast weather report
❍ (Phase 1) In case of overlapping warning of dry alarm and strong wind warning
-East Coastal Firepower Reinforcement (23, 61)
-Batch vehicles by department; 23 units (Chuncheon 2 Wonju 2, Taebaek 2, Hongcheon 2, Hoengseong 2, Yeongwol 2, Pyeongchang 2,
Jeongseon 2, Cheorwon 2, Hwacheon 2, Yanggu 1, Inje 2)
※ Applied designated vehicle related to Protection Structure Division-No. 1502 (January 16, 2020)
❍ (Phase 2) In case of dry alarm and strong wind alarm superimposition forecast
-National Fire Service Fire Department Request
-Efficient resource management operation through nationwide firefighting training
※ Establishment of detailed plan for the advancement of firefighting force
Resource group designation operation
❍ Operation of 6 city and county resource collection points on the east coast
-Resource gathering sites: 15 places (Gangneung 3, Donghae 2, Samcheon 2, Sokcho 2, Goseong 3, Yangyang 2)
-Operation of resource gathering sites: Operation of the British Library control group
※ Operation of resource gathering area related to Protection Structure Division-1502 (2020. 1.16.)
Promotion of installation of fire extinguishing system for East Coast Forest Adjacent Village
❍ Held a regional briefing session for priority installation of firefighting water facilities in forest adjoining villages (2.7. Yangyang Fire Station)
❍ Business budget: KRW 180 million (original budget)
※ Promoting additional budget such as special grant tax
❍ Reinforce the education of villagers’ emergency fire extinguishing system
※ Resident education and management related to the Protective Structure Division-2887 (20. 2. 3.)
Kangwon Fire Station celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2019 since it began in 1919 at the Ministry of Economic Affairs in Gangwon-do. Since the independence, Gangwon Fire Station, which has 26 people, has now evolved into an organization with 16 fire departments, 71 119 safety centers, 50 119 regional colleges, and 3,228 skilled workers.
If the Hwacheon and Yanggu Fire Departments, which are currently under construction, will be opened in the first half of 2019, the fire departments will be installed in all 18 cities and counties in the province, enabling higher quality fire services. In addition, by the end of 2022, the number of firefighting personnel will be able to carry out disaster safety services for Kangwon residents. We believe that the driving force of such development so far is the result of all Kangwon firemen working together in a unified working environment, doing their utmost in their respective places, and devoted themselves to protecting people’s lives and property. Today’s fire-fighting environment is facing a time when we need to proactively cope with the rapidly changing socio-economic conditions such as the expansion and complexity of disasters, the aging society, and the development of science and technology. Safety has become a necessity, not an option, in people’s daily lives, and the national demand for safety is higher than ever. In order for the people to be a safe country, the development of the firefighting administration, which is fulfilling its role and responsibility at various disaster sites, must be preceded.
As history does not come overnight, the development of firefighting administration that we are part of will be possible when the wisdom and efforts of many seniors who have gone before are harmonized, and based on their valuable experience and abundant knowledge, we can make new ideas. Kangwon Fire’s efforts to innovate in the face of complicated disasters and provide fire services that meet the trust of the people will never stop. Lastly, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all the firefighting families who have been interested in compiling the “100 Years of Gangwon Fire Fighting” and have contributed greatly to the collection and editing of materials.
Chung-Sik Kim, General Manager, Gangwon-do